A study was conducted to assess the environmental condition of estuaries in the EMAP Carolinian Province (Cape Henry, VA St. Lucie Inlet, FL). A total of 87 randomly located stations was sampled from July 5 September 14, 1995 in accordance with a probabilistic sampling design. Wherever possible, synoptic measures were made of: (1) general habitat condition (depth, physical properties of water, sediment grain-size, organic carbon content), (2) pollution exposure (sediment contaminant concentrations, sediment toxicity, low dissolved oxygen conditions in the water column, ammonia and sulfide in sediment porewater), (3) biotic conditions (diversity and abundance of macroinfauna and demersal biota, pathological disorders in demersal biota), and (4) aesthetic quality (presence of anthropogenic debris, visible oil, noxious sediment odor, water clarity). Percentages of degraded vs. undegraded estuarine area were estimated based on these various environmental indicators. The data also were compared to results of a related EMAP survey conducted in 1994 in this same region as part of a multi-year monitoring effort.