This document provides an assessment of ecological condition in coastal ocean and estuarine waters of the U.S. South Atlantic Bight from Cape Henry, Virginia, through the southern end of the Indian River Lagoon along the east coast of Florida. Data are from sampling conducted in open shelf waters during March-April 2004 and in estuaries each year from 2000 to 2004. The project was a large collaborative effort by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Southeast U.S. Coastal States (Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia). It also represents one of a series of assessments conducted under EPA's National Coastal Assessment (NCA) program. The NCA is the coastal component of the nationwide Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The NCA program is administered through the EPA and implemented through partnerships with a variety of federal and state agencies, universities, and the private sector. The 2004 South Atlantic Bight (SAB) coastal ocean shelf assessment involved the participation and collaboration of NOAA, EPA, and the State of Florida/Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FFWCC).