Since NOAA published the 2007 State of Deep Coral Ecosystems of the United States report, many deep-sea coral research and management efforts have taken place. This publication presents these exciting advances. Like the 2007 report, we have regional chapters describing the distribution and ecology of the deep-sea coral ecosystems, with a focus on new information since 2007. In addition, the scope has been broadened to include deep-sea sponge ecosystems. These regional chapters are interspersed with spotlight chapters that explore a number of cross-cutting topics in deep-sea coral and sponge research.