Mapping Reef Fish and the Seascape: Using Acoustics and Spatial Modeling to Guide Coastal Management
Author(s): Costa, Bryan, J. Christopher Taylor, Laura Kracker, Tim Battista, and Simon Pittman.
NCCOS Center: CCMA
Center Team: Biogeography
Publication Type: Journal Article
Journal Title: PLoS ONE
Date of Publication: 2014
Reference Information: 9(1):
Keywords: CCMA, CCFHR, Mapping reef fish, Reef fish distribution, Coral reef habitat, Seascape, Mapping the seascape, Seafloor mapping, Acoustics, Spatial modeling, Coastal management, Splitbeam, Multibeam, Echosounder, Conservation
Abstract: Reef fish distributions are patchy in time and space with some coral reef habitats supporting higher densities (i.e., aggregations) of fish than others. Identifying and quantifying fish aggregations (particularly during spawning events) are often top priorities for coastal managers. However, the rapid mapping of these aggregations using conventional survey methods (e.g., non-technical SCUBA diving and remotely operated cameras) are limited by depth, visibility and time. Acoustic sensors (i.e., splitbeam and multibeam echosounders) are not constrained by these same limitations, and were used to concurrently map and quantify the location, density and size of reef fish along with seafloor structure in two, separate locations in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Reef fish aggregations were documented along the shelf edge, an ecologically important ecotone in the region. Fish were grouped into three classes according to body size, and relationships with the benthic seascape were modeled in one area using Boosted Regression Trees. These models were validated in a second area to test their predictive performance in locations where fish have not been mapped. Models predicting the density of large fish ($29 cm) performed well (i.e., AUC = 0.77). Water depth and standard deviation of depth were the most influential predictors at two spatial scales (100 and 300 m). Models of small (#11 cm) and medium (12–28 cm) fish performed poorly(i.e., AUC = 0.49 to 0.68) due to the high prevalence (45–79%) of smaller fish in both locations, and the unequal prevalence
of smaller fish in the training and validation areas. Integrating acoustic sensors with spatial modeling offers a new and reliable approach to rapidly identify fish aggregations and to predict the density large fish in un-surveyed locations. This integrative approach will help coastal managers to prioritize sites, and focus their limited resources on areas that may be of
higher conservation value.
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