Great Lakes Mussel Watch Supports the President’s Great Lakes Restoration Initiative
Project Status: This project began in January 2010 and is projected to be completed in December 2014
The President’s Great Lakes Restoration Initiative began in 2010 and provided the financial support for the Great Lakes Mussel Watch, one of several projects of contaminant monitoring with Great Lakes basin-wide coverage. Mussel and sediment data are used to assess the efficacy of contamination remediation, legislation, and resource management efforts, particularly in Areas of Concern, “hot spots” identified by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (Annex 2 of the 1987 Protocol).
Why We Care
Dreissenid mussels are abundant in the outer harbors on breakwaters and other hard substrates throughout the Great Lakes. These sessile, filter-feeding bottom dwellers bioaccumulate contaminants, possess limited ability to metabolize contaminants, are representative of local conditions, shed light on bioavailability of contaminants to higher trophic levels, and serve as surrogates for benthic and wildlife health, thus making them an excellent tool for contamination monitoring and assessment.
What We Did and Are Doing
Following the inception of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) to address the significant environmental issues plaguing the Great Lakes region, Mussel Watch expanded its regional monitoring activities in the Great Lakes in 2009 to include all U.S. Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the region. This enhanced effort falls under the 'Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern' focus area outlined in the GLRI Action Plan. The overall objective of the expanded monitoring is to assess remediation effectiveness and provide relevant biological data to support decision making for Beneficial Use Impairment (BUI) removal and subsequent delisting of AOCs. The stated objective is being met through a phased approach using a suite of mussel and sediment indicators at newly established sites within AOCs and by leveraging the long-term monitoring data at reference sites for meaningful interpretation of AOC status and recovery.
Our collaborators include:
U.S. EPA Region 5, Great Lakes National Program Office
U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development
University of Wisconsin – School of Freshwater Sciences
U.S. Geological Survey
Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality
Ohio Environmental Protection Agency
New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
NOAA Office of Response and Restoration
NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service
NOAA National Marine Sanctuaries
What We Found
We report results from the first phase (2010/11) under GLRI, mainly mussel tissue and sediment chemistry data obtained by Mussel Watch with the goal of providing a high-level basin-wide perspective on the relative magnitude and extent of contamination in AOCs.
To better address contamination and remediation issues of specific AOCs, Mussel Watch has adopted multi-parameter assessments and incorporated newer techniques and approaches to the existing methods. For mussels, we have intensified sampling, both spatially and temporally in priority AOCs to provide a more robust measure of bioavailable contamination, have used deployment of caged mussels to track source contaminants in areas where extant mussels beds are not found, and have incorporated effects-based monitoring to complement body burden measurements.
We use the Generalized Random Tessellation Stratified method to conduct probabilistic sediment quality assessments, which allow us to report on sediment chemistry and benthos and sediment toxicity. These focused efforts in priority AOCs have been implemented through the successful partnership and collaboration with local, state, and federal entities. The results from these ongoing and future works will be the focus of subsequent reports.
Mussel Watch will continue to monitor both mussel chemistry and health indicators in priority AOCs, especially where leveraged resources from federal and state partners will result in more timely and relevant data. In particular, Mussel Watch will continue monitoring for selected contaminants of emerging concern and use new technologies such as genomics to expand the knowledge and understanding of biological impacts from chemical stressors.
In 2014 Great Lakes Mussel Watch will work intensely in the Milwaukee, Buffalo, and Niagara AOCs.
Related Regions of Study: Great Lakes, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin
Primary Contacts: Ed Johnson, Kimani Kimbrough
Coastal Pollution (Chemical Contaminants)
Related NCCOS Center: CCMA